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Professor I. Nelson Rose, Whittier Law School, Costa Mesa, CA.
Do Parents Have A Duty To Keep Their Kids Out Of Casinos?
When a gaming operator loses its license because
parents let their underage
children gamble, can the operator sue the parents?
The Court of Appeal of Louisiana recently was faced
with this question. As this
is being written, the Court's opinion is not yet final. And, although
the facts of
the case are somewhat in dispute, the basic legal issues are clear.
On January 11, 1994, Sandi and Toni Dixon, guardians
Candace, brought the little one with them into the Chelsea Street Pub
Pecanland Mall in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. The restaurant had a
section for its video poker machines. Signs warned that minors were
allowed to enter this gaming room.
Two state troopers were also in the Pub, having lunch.
One testified that he
saw Toni take Candace into the video poker room. Toni put coins into
machine, then showed the child, sitting on her lap, how to touch the
play the game.
The Video Gaming Division of the Office of State
Police issued a citation to the
Pub owner, Carver, Inc., and petitioned to revoke its gaming license.
Now, pulling a license worth hundreds of thousands
of dollars because one
four-year-old touched a video poker screen may seem a bit extreme.
Louisiana Legislature's Video Draw Poker Devices Control Law stated,
A. No person licensed... or any agent or employee thereof, shall
allow a person
under the age of eighteen to play or operate a video draw poker device
B. The Division shall revoke the license of any person... who
is found by the
Division to have committed or allowed a violation of Subsection A.
The Division had the power to issue fines when other
violations occurred. But
it could impose only one penalty, license revocation, when it came
The Legislature later realized this penalty was awfully
harsh. But rather than
give the Division more discretion, the Legislature changed the law
to read: "A.
No person... shall intentionally allow a person under the age of eighteen..."
The Pub's lawyer argued that the Legislature merely
was clarifying the prior
law; that a license could only be revoked if the Division proved the
intentionally allowed little Candace to play video poker.
The Louisiana Court of Appeal should have said the
reason for the change is
obvious: The Legislature felt it would be unfair to revoke a license
operator was merely careless in letting minors gamble.
Instead, in a poorly reasoned opinion, the Court
held that the only intent
required is what is known as "general criminal intent."
"General criminal intent" actually has nothing to
do with true intent. It is a legal
fiction, created to prevent an intoxicated defendant from claiming
that he was
so drunk that he did not know what he was doing.
For the Court to say that the word "intentionally"
in a statute means "general
criminal intent" means someone can "intentionally" do something that
not even know he is doing. In other words, the operator's actual knowledge
intent is irrelevant.
The Pub's lawyer pointed out that the four-year-old
was not really playing the
game. But the Court held the law "includes all minors regardless of
Having lost the battle, and its license, the Pub's
owner tried to salvage some of
its business by finding someone else to take the blame. It probably
it could not sue its own employees for letting the child into the gaming
did try to sue the State Police Video Gaming Division, but that, naturally,
Carver, Inc., hired a new lawyer, George E. Lucas,
Jr., who decided to sue
Sandi and Toni Dixon, the pair responsible for bringing in the four-year-old.
Lucas knew that most individuals do not have enough money to make a
like this worthwhile. But he also knew that homeowners' insurance often
covers claims having nothing to do with houses. So, he added Louisiana
Bureau Casualty Insurance Company as a defendant. The lawsuit sought
damages for the loss of the gaming license "and the substantial revenue
Both the trial court and Court of Appeal took the
claim seriously, though they
both agreed the lawsuit had to be dismissed.
It may seem farfetched that these adults might have
to pay for all of the Pub's
lost profits. But they did cause the Pub to lose its valuable video
Fortunately for the Dixons, causation alone is not
The Pub alleged that the Dixons were negligent in
letting a child play video
poker. Legally, a claim of negligence can only be brought if the defendant
owed a duty to the injured plaintiff.
The Court of Appeal analyzed the "moral, social and
including the fairness of imposing liability." Looking at the history
of the statute and regulations it came to the inevitable conclusion:
The duty to
keep children out of the gaming area rests ultimately with the licensee.
Parents may have a moral duty to keep their young
ones away from gambling.
But they owe no legal duty to gaming operators.
In the end, it all came down to money: It is the
operator who would make more
money if it allowed minors to gamble, so it is the operator who bears
Professor Rose can be reached
at his Web Site: www.GamblingAndTheLaw.com